The Role of Lottery Marketing in a Democracy


A lottery is a system for distributing something (usually money or prizes) among a group of people according to chance. The prize may be anything from cash to goods to services, such as college tuition or a new home. In the United States, most state lotteries are publicly operated. Private lotteries are also common. Historically, governments have favored lotteries as a way to generate revenue without raising taxes. Lotteries were used to fund many of the early American colleges, including Harvard, Dartmouth, Yale, King’s College, and William and Mary. The Continental Congress even voted to hold a lottery to raise funds for the Revolutionary War.

In the modern era, states adopt lotteries by statute and establish state agencies to run them. Typically, they start with a small number of relatively simple games and then expand them as the demand for new games rises. In the end, a lottery is just another form of gambling, with the government profiting from it in much the same way as a casino does.

As with any form of gambling, the odds are that the majority of players will lose. Despite this, state lottery commissions make it their business to advertise the fact that playing the lottery is fun and rewarding, and that winning the lottery isn’t hard to do. They also try to convince the public that lottery profits benefit the state, promoting the idea that a portion of every ticket is earmarked for education.

The message is effective. Lottery profits are generally far greater than the amount that is paid out in prizes, and public approval of the lottery remains high regardless of a state’s actual fiscal health. This is particularly true during times of economic stress, when states can use the lottery to counteract a public outcry against tax increases or budget cuts.

Despite these advantages, however, there are serious questions about the proper role of lottery marketing in a democracy. For one thing, it is inherently regressive: the average lottery player is low-income and less educated. And while lottery advertising emphasizes that anyone can win, it is clear that the vast majority of players are committed gamblers who play a lot and spend a large percentage of their income on tickets.

More importantly, the promotion of the lottery undermines a state’s core function as a guardian of its citizens. By promoting gambling, the lottery promotes addiction and encourages the waste of scarce resources. State legislatures and governors should weigh these factors carefully before approving any lottery. If they do, the lottery might prove to be a more productive source of revenue than the current reliance on regressive sales taxes. It might even provide the necessary funding to create a better social safety net for the nation’s poorest and most vulnerable residents.